Here's a non perfect translation of mkotha's guide, hope it helps:

**For observations FF12****Overview**FF12 because you are dealing with random numbers to investigate what is inside, I learned writing.

**Contents**Overview

Conventions

Note

Introduction

A characteristic of the generator

A common usage pattern of the series

A process using a series

* Gun

* Unarmed

* Ax, hammer, attack damage calculation Handibomu

* Kearu, Kearuda

* Potion, Haiposhon, Ekusuposhon, ethers, ether-high

* Opening of the Treasure

* Load saved data

A series of random actions do not consume

Applications

* Locate random

* 5hits principles of law

* "Plateau Serobi / Hara months crossing" Treasure of law POP

Can not know

**Conventions**In this article follow the rules below.

* With ? x ?, x represents the greatest integer less of.

* x% y in, x to y represents the modulo. x % y = x - y * ?x / y? x% y = x - y * ? x / y ?

**Note**In this article, FF12 and observe the rules of randomness in which describes how to control it. Play like this is probably not the intention of the developer, you can use to casual game off balance. I have read this sentence in FF12 as well as the unfit liability.

This sentence is so poorly written verification on the whole, well aware that there may be an error.

**Introduction**Computer games in general, if the random numbers required in the course of treatment, instead of random numbers used to calculate the value derived in accordance with certain procedures. These are called pseudo-random number. Pseudo-random number, random, so the steps are made (the disordered) and are not designed to have no problem forgiving enough regularity on the fact considers the random. What you want more information googled.

FF12 is that they have at least three pseudo-random number generators, they operate independently. One of which is particularly important, damage calculation and determination of the attack hit, and determination of the contents of the treasure, which regulates many of the events of the player-friendly touch. A generator make sure to call it. A deal is a little less than the generator only.

**A characteristic of the generator**A generator is less than 0 or 2 32 (approximately) one can generate random integers at once. Each time you generate the internal state of A is an integer that will change constantly, and immediately after power-up, and immediately after the hardware reset, A is the internal state of a certain value. By this, A generates the same sequence of random numbers every time. This random sequence can be calculated as a specific sequence, the first section, for example, 1820836235, and 1372235862 is the following. In other words, to generate random numbers for the first time after power-up, A will always generate 1820836235.

Therefore, A If you want to predict the future output, it is after power A for "many pieces of" what I knew enough of the random. In other words, A is fixed to the inside (of infinite length), and it has a table of random numbers, behave as if you're using one from each of the top reading is required each time a random number. Also, if you ever had A n generates a random number of pieces, the next generation of the series on A (n +1) is equal to the second. That this current position on the table of random numbers to believe that n, n a (for series A) to be called a random position. In addition, if the position of k-random process that went through that process, "the random number k in total consumption," and expressing.

A difficulty in reading the following series Ue be calculated without knowing how or in concrete, but to write and keep people interested, A is the Mersenne Twister (mt19937) is calculated by Ru. Initialization routine, however the latest version of the year rather than 2002, using 1998 versions of those years. seed in 4537 (4357 I do not ya!).

**A common usage pattern of the series**A 0-2 series is a value ranging from 32 -1 to be, in fact, often a smaller value is required. For example, n if you choose one at random from each choice, FF12 are widely used in the method is to use the remainder. Specifically, it generates a random one, it takes a modulo n. Then, from 0 to n-1 obtained in almost equal probability to the integers.

As an application of it, "k% chance of doing something" in that process. This is one of the random numbers generated (v to) and, v% 100 to do it only if k was less than. v% 100 from 0 to 99 because it takes up to a value almost equal probability, v% 100 <k k% probability will be met and about. This procedure is used so extensively, "(k of accuracy)% determined" to be called by name.

K% accuracy of decision:

A single generating a random number series, v Tooku.

v% 100 <k determine if success, otherwise fail decision.

**A process using a series**The following series of actions in handling a variety of attacks and magic and A is used to write about or how the random numbers. Regarding the survey, the state is absent around the enemy, do not remove all the effects related to the investigation status on who has to perform an action for friendly forces. If you act against the enemy in combat is not necessarily just might not fit.

**Gun**And gun attacks, if you hit it, eight random numbers to individual consumers. Breakdown is as follows.

Knock-back rate calculation (2)

Now generate a random number 2, v0, v1 and. Knock-back rate is less.

Knock back knock back rate = value of arms (10) + v0% level of the attacker - v1% level of the target (negative result when the calculation is 0)

This is slightly different from that found expression in Batoruarutimania, probably right here.

Knock-back Tests (1)

% Accuracy and to determine the rate of knock-back. If your attack is successful even if you do not knock back, but the decision is to be performed.

Non-decision errors (1)

Accuracy and error rate% for non-decision. Non-normal error rate is 100, determined to succeed, but always, a random number is still consumed. Fails to determine if this is not done the following decision to quit just four random consumption.

Critical Decision (1)

Critical factor (5)% and accuracy to make decision.

Damage calculation (2)

First, the reference value is given, and nine times higher than the reference value 1 / 8 procedure twice to get a random value less than rand98 defined as follows.

rand98 (reference value):

Reference value 0, and 0 without spending a random result.

Otherwise, each one generates a random number, v and. Provided the following results.

Result = threshold + (v% ? threshold * 12.5 ?) / 100

In short, in the range from 0.01 Possible integer multiples of the results and pick one at random.

Rand98 gun damage is calculated using the following.

rand98 (attack value) is executed, the results and r0.

rand98 (value attack) to try again, with the result r1.

Determine the damage as follows.

Damage ratio ? = ? r0 * r1 *

Where "ratio" is the weather on the HP and attack power attributes fill that UP is multiplied by all the options and other compensation.

Tests added additional effect (1)

As% accuracy rate to determine additional effects occur. Unchanged even if you consume the random bullets that are not equipped with additional effects.

To tell the character of gun attacks, and to cancel the attack and immediately entered a motion to change equipment attack, only four random numbers are consumed.

**Unarmed**The attacker is unarmed, is consumed in a single random number usually 10. If you experience a sequence n hits of the hammer, if you hit all consumers will total 9n +12.

Now the 10 consumed is divided into each of the five halves. If you experience a hammer sequence is repeated only a few minutes sequence determination of total 5??late. The following is a breakdown.

Knock-back rate calculation (2)

Knock-back Tests (1)

This is the same for two guns.

Unknown (1)

But one that consumes a random number unaccounted for.

Hammer binary decision (1)

% Accuracy and to determine the sequence??. ??sequence is calculated by the following formula.

Ren Ren =

??* 0.7 ? (if not equipped with a forearm of Genji)

Ren Ren =

??* 1.8 ? (if equipped with a forearm of Genji)

If successful in this decision, and M to determine the accuracy and 11 times (number of successful +2) hits a sequence of hammer occurs. 11 but also to determine the success of all 12 hits occur only once. M is defined as follows.

M = 8 (? max HP / 4 ? ? now HP)

M = 16 (? max HP / 8 ? ? current HP <? max HP / 4 ?)

M = 32 (? up here HP/16 ? ? HP <? max HP / 8 ?)

M = 64 (current HP <? up HP/16 ?)

If you encounter a sequence n hits of the hammer, the determination of the second part is repeated n times, during the second half and the second part of (n-1 times in total), and time-consuming four unaccounted for random numbers.

The second part follows.

Decision guard shield (1)

Shield to avoid% accuracy rate to determine. If successful, the following conditions exist.

Decision guard weapons (1)

And avoidance of arms% accuracy rate to determine. If successful, the following conditions exist.

Decision Parry (1)

Parry% accuracy and to determine the rate. successful, the following conditions exist.

Non-decision errors (1)

Accuracy and error rate% for non-decision. f it fails, not less.

Damage calculation (1)

Damage calculation procedure is as follows.

rand98 (attack value) is executed, the results with v.

Determine the damage as follows.

Damage = ? (v - value defense) * magnification ?

Where "ratio" is a basic ratio (force * (power + level) / 256) multiplied by the ratio of various correction.

**Ax, hammer, attack damage calculation Handibomu**First, the real number x is given as a reference value, 0 or x procedure to generate a random value less than rand11 defined as follows.

rand11 (x):

x <0.01 at 0 and the result, without consuming a random exit.

Otherwise, each one generating random numbers (v and), and provided the following results.

100 Result = (v% ? x * 100 ?) / 100

Using this definition, the damage these weapons will be calculated in the next step.

rand98 (attack value) is executed, and a result.

c = (a - the value target defense) and provided. c <0, then damage is 0, exit without consuming any more random.

Otherwise rand11 (ratio) is executed, the results with r. Damage determined as follows.

Damage = ? c * r ?

Where "ratio" means (force * (energy + level) / 128) multiplied by the correction value basis of various magnifications.

**Kearu, Kearuda**Only one individual consumes a random number used to calculate the amount recovered. Computational procedure as well as unarmed damage calculation. But instead of the value of magic attack power, defensive value of 0 instead of using the basic magnification (magic * (magic + level) / 256 + 2) as calculated.

**Potion, Haiposhon, Ekusuposhon, ethers, ether-high**Consume only a piece of random numbers. Whereabouts are unknown.

**Opening of the Treasure**You examine the treasure, Gill made the first decision (accuracy varies depending on the Treasure). Following process is followed.

Determine if successful Gill

If a fixed amount that is set to Treasure, Gil get a random value without consuming it. Otherwise, we generate a random number each one (v and), (1 + v% maximum) to get the gil.

Gill failed to determine if

To determine non-rare. Accuracy, if a diamond bracelet that features a 90, if not 50. Where "non-rare" and refers to what is written in the left column of the table described Shinarioarutimania Treasure.

**Load saved data**By definition, random positions of power is always zero, but is consumed by hundreds of random numbers can be manipulated to load the saved data. This time, even the same data multiple times and try to load completely at random position is not certain when it becomes operational. "Plateau Serobi / highway rest station" I tried saving the data in random locations were within the range of approximately 570 ± 10. But untested, this behavior may vary depending on model of the body. The PS2 is used in this study SCPH-70000.

A series of random actions do not consume

* Opening the menu, change equipment, replacement of members battle to obtain a license but we also do not consume any A series of random numbers.

* Na bra, Bokyaru, each Desuperu magic is not consumption but also run a random one. Also, (as many as tested) all actions are random and do not consume a complete stop before running charge. Meanwhile, according to Batoruarutimania, to calculate the charge time is a random number that is used. Therefore, if my description of the Ultimania, when determining the time-series A charge will be non-random numbers are used.

* Character, when you attack with a gun may emit a slogan. There are several types of the slogans, slogans or any issue that seems to have been chosen at random (but most likely not be the same slogans issued twice in a row). However, when consumed in a gun attack A random series of eight pieces is known to all applications, the decision of the slogans that are estimated by systematic random numbers are used.

For those who are interested, put an A-series we know about the pseudo-random number generator has been found except two. Are also using the linear congruential generator either. Recurrence equation of the linear congruential "x n = (x n-1 * a + b)% m" and you can write, one of which (a, b, m) = (6364136223846793005, 1, 2 64) at , for each term x n (x n / 2 32)% 2 31 to the output. The initial value is probably 1. The other (a, b, m) = (7 5, 0, 2 31 -1) in the output sections intact. The initial value is perhaps 305,420,679.

**Applications**Locate random

During play, if you can identify the exact location of that point random numbers in any way, by adjusting the position of intentionally random, can be controlled to some extent the attitude of random numbers that follow. For example, if you wanted to advance the position of 100 random pieces, a gun and shot 12 times for them (on the attributes taken to prepare to die and absorption), the better it Kearu?Ere four times then.

The estimation of random location, convenient to use the numbers will recover the amount and the amount of damage. A calculation is given in random sequence so completely, for example in advance for each random position "when the amount recovered in Kearuda He advocated that position," to every table to calculate the actual two or three times chanting Kearuda recover the amount from the table to find the sequence of it. "All random position" to make a table covering is of course impossible, in fact, almost 10 suffice if you make a table of random numbers less than the range of positions worldwide.

The idea is simple but this work, creating a table to calculate by hand is impractical because a large amount of computation. To assist in this task simple JavaScript included so that the tool you want to try if you're interested.